Earning income via Target affiliates, however, requires a bit of work. Cookies expire in just seven days, and commissions can be as low as just one percent, so you’ll need to be operating a high-traffic website in order to make serious cash with this program. But with Target’s much-beloved brand reputation and vast catalog, relevant product links can be a big earner for established influencers.
For example, if you love video games – you should start a website that talks about video games and helps people make a purchasing decision. If you love motorcycles – you can start a website that talks about motorcycles, motorcycle accessories and parts to make your bike better. On this website you can tell people about all of those awesome products and tell them where they can buy these products (Amazon, etc.) and whenever people make a purchase – you get a commission! You do not need to take care of the warehouse storage, shipping, payments, customer service – you simply help people find the products they already want and you get paid for it.
While on-page SEO is like the body of car, off-page SEO is like the engine. Without a solid foundational body, the entire site will fall apart. But with no off-page SEO, the beautiful website will just sit there going unnoticed. Despite what you might have heard, links are still one of the biggest factor to getting your site ranked high in Google. 
As advertisers collect data across multiple external websites about a user's online activity, they can create a detailed profile of the user's interests to deliver even more targeted advertising. This aggregation of data is called behavioral targeting.[26] Advertisers can also target their audience by using contextual to deliver display ads related to the content of the web page where the ads appear.[19]:118 Retargeting, behavioral targeting, and contextual advertising all are designed to increase an advertiser's return on investment, or ROI, over untargeted ads.[27]
So what’s an affiliate marketing? In simple words, I’d like to define it as a partnership between the maker/seller of a product/service and your online store. You don’t really have to tie the knot, but simply create an affiliate tracking id, and sell the product or service on your platform. The profit of the sales is split between you and the product/service provider.
Whenever I talk to someone about WA – I always start by saying it’s not some money making scheme, easy system to riches or pyramid scam. So what is Wealthy Affiliate? Wealthy Affiliate University is first of all an online business community and a marketing training center. If you think that you will start making money by simply joining WA – I would suggest you walk away, it’s not going to happen. This is probably the biggest difference between WA and all the other online programs – Wealthy Affiliate does not sell hype and false promises, it doesn’t promise to make you rich overnight and it doesn’t promise you a shortcut to overnight millions of dollars. However, this program promises to teach, train, educate and support you. If you are willing to start and run a successful business – than keep reading.
#2: Another great program is Jon Dykstra's Niche Tycoon. This focuses on paid traffic and outsourcing content to make money with Google Adsense (and similar programs). It requires a bit more of a budget, and also has less of a support community than Wealthy Affiliate, so it's best for people with a bit of online marketing experience and some money to get their business going.

The emergence and evolution of the Internet created an opportunity for different types of publishers – ranging from individuals with a Facebook account or blog, to content review sites, deal aggregators, and app developers. As people continue to invent new ways to refer traffic to merchants, new models will surface, but here is a quick list of the popular models today, summarizing the primary promotional method.
Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format, which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer. In the United Kingdom, the IAB Affiliate Council under chair Matt Bailey announced regulations[46] that stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be."

Because users have different operating systems, web browsers[84] and computer hardware (including mobile devices and different screen sizes), online ads may appear to users differently from how the advertiser intended, or the ads may not display properly at all. A 2012 comScore study revealed that, on average, 31% of ads were not "in-view" when rendered, meaning they never had an opportunity to be seen.[85] Rich media ads create even greater compatibility problems, as some developers may use competing (and exclusive) software to render the ads (see e.g. Comparison of HTML 5 and Flash).

I am also going to agree with Dr. Mani (who wouldn’t) The list size sometimes does not matter but rather the type of person on the list. Your tips here will definitely make the small list still very profitable. I believe the same goes for the amount of blog readers you have; a smaller group of voracious buyers is many times better than the larger group of readers that want the freebies.
Are you excited about cost-per-action networks? Ready to dig in and get started creating lucrative advertising campaigns? Well, before you do, make  sure you’re in the right mindset. A little research up front can get you  organized to create a lifetime business, and not just a part-time job. If you  know how to create a system that runs efficiently, you can even get to the  point where you will be able to generate residual income from offers you  posted months ago! But, if you don’t start with the right idea, it will take you  a lot longer to get there, and it will mean a lot more struggle.
As far as affiliate programs, you would first consider what your audience would need. Someone who is doing a water fast might be interested in books on that topic, multi-vitamins and other health products. If they’re doing a water fast, they’re doing it for a reason. To lose weight or to cure something that traditional medicine might not be curing.
Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[35] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[36] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[37] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[38]
JVZoo’s strength is that it allows experienced marketers to gain access to product launches and a huge range of online courses while setting up sales funnels and customized landing pages. It’s definitely not for someone who wants to monetize a blog or earn money by having users click through and buy physical products. If you’ve carved out a strong presence online in the marketing space, JVZoo might be a perfect fit.

This piece of technology enables a whole specter of activities such as managing affiliates, tracking sale-related data, monitoring and paying commissions, etc. When combined, these functionalities are an incredibly useful tool for merchants, which is why most merchants think about using affiliate software for affiliate program management. The difference between self-hosted and hosted software is explained as well as how they work. In the final section, you will find the list of five popular affiliate software along with the features and benefits they come with.
Affiliate marketing has now invaded Hollywood? We know it invaded US politics in Washington as some politicians (current and retired) are silent affiliate marketers or in MLM. Maybe we can look forward to hearing in the next few years about more celebrities going from actors and actresses to home-based affiliate marketers. Wouldn’t that be something?

The power of convincing is defined by your article, I found it very interesting in the many point mention with Wealthy Affiliate. I don’t really think people really don’t understand the power this community can change lives. You are a prime example based on your success report and the affiliate income report that anyone can achieve in owning their own business. I very encourage by your article it has made me think a little harder about what can I do to have my own success story and the answer is Wealthy Affiliate stick with it. I wish you greater success Tony and Thanks again for powerful article!
There are ten essential types of marketing that can be done online. Some of these can be broken down into organic marketing and others can be categorized as paid marketing. Organic, of course, is the allure of marketing professionals from around the planet. It's free and its unencumbered traffic that simply keeps coming. Paid marketing, on the other hand, is still a very attractive proposition as long as the marketing pays for itself by having the right type of offer that converts.
In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.
This piece of technology enables a whole specter of activities such as managing affiliates, tracking sale-related data, monitoring and paying commissions, etc. When combined, these functionalities are an incredibly useful tool for merchants, which is why most merchants think about using affiliate software for affiliate program management. The difference between self-hosted and hosted software is explained as well as how they work. In the final section, you will find the list of five popular affiliate software along with the features and benefits they come with.
Over the past two years, I have been nothing but overwhelmed with internet and affiliate marketing. I think I am like many beginning internet marketers. Try every tool and every internet marketing guru's advice because they promise the world and make it seem so easy. Cost? Huge. Results? Few. When I came across Pat Flynn I felt there was something different. He just seemed real to me. So, I decided to try Pat's 1·2·3 Affiliate Marketing course. His course was much less expensive than others I've paid for. I'm half-way through the course and I finally finished my site and made a sale. I have regained my faith and really enjoy the white hat aspect of affiliate marketing. I feel like Pat really cares about us, which is unique in this business.
There are plenty of guides to marketing. From textbooks to online video tutorials, you can really take your pick. But, we felt that there was something missing — a guide that really starts at the beginning to equip already-intelligent professionals with a healthy balance of strategic and tactical advice. The Beginner’s Guide to Online Marketing closes that gap.
It is very rare for an individual to enter a management role early in his or her career. Most marketing managers have spent several years working somewhere else on a marketing team. This assumes the existence of at least a bachelor's degree, but an advanced degree such as a master’s in marketing or business administration can give an aspiring manager a deciding edge.
Wealthy Affiliate cuts through all the BS and confusion. Making money online is difficult enough as it is, the last thing you need is to feel like you're not getting all the information and training you need unless you pay more. With Wealthy Affiliate I simply went through the certification courses, step-by-step, and applied what I learned without any pressure to spend additional money on my business. Everything I needed was already there.
The premium Wealthy Affiliate membership is where you get access to absolutely everything. If you’re serious about building an online business, I have never in my 8 years in this industry seen such an amazing community full of help, tools, and resources. I’ve been a member at several other online marketing sites, but this one blows the rest of them out of the water.
Another one of the highest paying and most popular dating affiliate programs is eHarmony, which is based on the actual earnings that can be made from each referred sale. Up to $188 can be made from a single sale. In general, the members at eHarmony are typically looking to find serious long term relationships, so many of them are willing to pay extra to find similar people.
Furthermore, advertisers may encounter legal problems if legally required information doesn't actually display to users, even if that failure is due to technological heterogeneity.[86]:i In the United States, the FTC has released a set of guidelines indicating that it's the advertisers' responsibility to ensure the ads display any required disclosures or disclaimers, irrespective of the users' technology.[86]:4–8
I want to close this post by talking about how I learn marketing now. I have an app on my phone, it’s called Nuzzel, and it will tell me what the people that I follow on Twitter are sharing. So if seven people are sharing something, it’s going to pop to the top of my feed, and I follow a lot of different Internet marketers, so I can see what’s trending and then I can save it to Pocket so I can read it later. And if I’m lazy, I can have Pocket dictate it for me so I don’t even have to read it.
Online reviews, then, have become another form of internet marketing that small businesses can't afford to ignore. While many small businesses think that they can't do anything about online reviews, that's not true. Just by actively encouraging customers to post reviews about their experience small businesses can weight online reviews positively. Sixty-eight percent of consumers left a local business review when asked. So assuming a business's products or services are not subpar, unfair negative reviews will get buried by reviews by happier customers.
As an internationally recognized Search Engine Marketing agency, we have the team, technology, and skills to manage large budget PPC campaigns with thousands of keywords. We have the ability to manage enterprise level accounts in multiple languages. IMI is also partner with Marin Software to provide our clients with the best possible advertising management platform, reporting dashboard, attribution modeling, and reporting.
Sponsored search (also called sponsored links, search ads, or paid search) allows advertisers to be included in the sponsored results of a search for selected keywords. Search ads are often sold via real-time auctions, where advertisers bid on keywords.[19]:118[53] In addition to setting a maximum price per keyword, bids may include time, language, geographical, and other constraints.[19]:118 Search engines originally sold listings in order of highest bids.[19]:119 Modern search engines rank sponsored listings based on a combination of bid price, expected click-through rate, keyword relevancy and site quality.[21]
Game advertising - In-Game advertising is defined as "inclusion of products or brands within a digital game."[50] The game allows brands or products to place ads within their game, either in a subtle manner or in the form of an advertisement banner. There are many factors that exist in whether brands are successful in their advertising of their brand/product, these being: Type of game, technical platform, 3-D and 4-D technology, game genre, congruity of brand and game, prominence of advertising within the game. Individual factors consist of attitudes towards placement advertisements, game involvement, product involvement, flow or entertainment. The attitude towards the advertising also takes into account not only the message shown but also the attitude towards the game. Dependent of how enjoyable the game is will determine how the brand is perceived, meaning if the game isn't very enjoyable the consumer may subconsciously have a negative attitude towards the brand/product being advertised. In terms of Integrated Marketing Communication "integration of advertising in digital games into the general advertising, communication, and marketing strategy of the firm"[50] is an important as it results in a more clarity about the brand/product and creates a larger overall effect.
Because users have different operating systems, web browsers[84] and computer hardware (including mobile devices and different screen sizes), online ads may appear to users differently from how the advertiser intended, or the ads may not display properly at all. A 2012 comScore study revealed that, on average, 31% of ads were not "in-view" when rendered, meaning they never had an opportunity to be seen.[85] Rich media ads create even greater compatibility problems, as some developers may use competing (and exclusive) software to render the ads (see e.g. Comparison of HTML 5 and Flash).
The power of convincing is defined by your article, I found it very interesting in the many point mention with Wealthy Affiliate. I don’t really think people really don’t understand the power this community can change lives. You are a prime example based on your success report and the affiliate income report that anyone can achieve in owning their own business. I very encourage by your article it has made me think a little harder about what can I do to have my own success story and the answer is Wealthy Affiliate stick with it. I wish you greater success Tony and Thanks again for powerful article!
Digital marketing is probably the fastest-changing marketing field out there: New tools are being built, more platforms emerge and more channels need to be included into your marketing plan. How not to get overwhelmed while staying on top of the latest marketing trends? Here are a few tools that help you scale and automate some parts of your marketing routine making you a more productive and empowered marketer: Tools to Semi-Automate Marketing Tasks 1.
And finally, while a great community already exists, if you use this link to create your free account I will personally be notified, at which point, I will shoot you a quick message saying hello and offering some free mentoring. So check out Wealthy Affiliate using my affiliate link and once you get inside, be sure to reply to my welcome message and introduce yourself!
No. Once you pass your test, and receive your certificate, you are certified for life. For instance if do great on your exam, and thereby get your SEO Certification, get Web Analytics Certified or a Social Media Marketing Certification, then you have it, and we will not ask you to give it back to us, or remove it from your LinkedIn profile, CV or resume. Once you pass the test, the certification is yours to keep.
Content is king. It always has been and it always will be. Creating insightful, engaging and unique content should be at the heart of any online marketing strategy. Too often, people simply don't obey this rule. The problem? This takes an extraordinary amount of work. However, anyone that tells you that content isn't important, is not being fully transparent with you. You cannot excel in marketing anything on the internet without having quality content.
The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.
Different jurisdictions have taken different approaches to privacy issues with advertising. The United States has specific restrictions on online tracking of children in the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA),[109]:16–17 and the FTC has recently expanded its interpretation of COPPA to include requiring ad networks to obtain parental consent before knowingly tracking kids.[112] Otherwise, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission frequently supports industry self-regulation, although increasingly it has been undertaking enforcement actions related to online privacy and security.[113] The FTC has also been pushing for industry consensus about possible Do Not Track legislation.
How much of your marketing strategy should be done online and which internet marketing elements you use depends on the nature of your business, your budget, your time, and your goals. Many small business owners do it all themselves in the beginning, but as their businesses grow, they begin to pay for services or outsource work to a virtual assistant that can help them with online marketing.
Online advertising, also called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Consumers view online advertising as an unwanted distraction with few benefits and have increasingly turned to ad blocking for a variety of reasons. When software is used to do the purchasing, it is known as programmatic advertising.

Google, Bing, Yahoo… they are aware of this, which is why they are reluctant to give new websites a chance. However, if after 3-6 months (depending on how competitive your niche is) you’re still regularly updating and adding new content to your website, you’ve shown the search engine Gods (aka – algorithms) that you’re serious about your website, and that’s when you start moving up the rankings. If your content is good, those pages that rank well enough to get noticed will get good engagement, visitors will spend time on them, and the way people interact with these pages will let the search engines know that you are providing quality content that people want.
Since this is the first time this course is being promoted, as I do with all of my online courses, I’m limiting the number of students to 500 only during this beta period. The 500 students of 1•2•3 Affiliate Marketing will have direct access to me and the community of students as we go through the course together. You’ll also have frequent office hours with me throughout the next month so that I can answer any questions you might have if you get stuck along the way.
But, after all the reviews I read, it seems that the only way to make big bucks from WA is through its own affiliate programs. This doesn’t sit well for someone like me who wants to do affiliate in other niches and still earn more than my last corporate job. And… I’m afraid that I would still need to spend a lot of money from media buying (i.e. solo, ads, pps) just to earn back and more.
Justine has managed affiliate programs for companies such as Shopify and Freshbooks. She is able to give this course a fresh prospective - from that of an affiliate manager! This is an amazing bonus that will show you how to always get approved to an affiliate program. She has assessed thousands of applications over the years and there's a lot that goes into the yes/no.
ClickBank allows you to join for free, and the approval process is virtually automatic, so it’s a great choice for people entering the affiliated game for the first time. ClickBank has a ton of information, including FAQs, walk-throughs, and videos available, so the barrier to entry is quite low. There’s also a (paid) program called ClickBank University with courses and assistance from experienced marketers.
When I first stumbled upon Wealthy Affiliate in 2007 I had to pay the full price just so I could see what it looks like and what it really is. This program has changed a lot in the past 11 years and you can try it out completely Free. The starter account is $0, no catch, no credit card required – so you could decide if it’s right for you without risking a single dime of your hard earned money.
Rakuten Marketing Affiliate discriminates when it comes to publisher applications. To maintain their current quality, they vigorously check publisher applications to ensure that they meet the standards. On top of that, accepted affiliates are monitored all the time to make certain they follow the network’s rules and continue to create top-notch content.
While mobile commerce is still very much in its early stages, all signs indicate this part of the market is poised to really take off over the next few years. By getting your mobile affiliate programs in place now, you can start to reap the early adopter benefits, get familiar with the nuances of mobile affiliate marketing, and expand your reach through a new network of mobile publishers.
There are many ways to determine which efforts are producing results and which ones aren't. For example, you can study your website's analytics through your web host or by using Google Analytics. Most social media sites provide analytics as well, or you can use tools such as HootSuite to get social media analytics. Your email service should also provide you with information on the open rates and engagement rates for your emails.
In any given niche you will probably find a lot of people all promoting the same product. Instead of following the crowd though, try to seek out the hidden gems in your market. They could be the independent merchants or the products bubbling to the surface. Taking on a lot of established affiliates can be a long process, but finding a quality product that is just waiting for the right promotion will set you apart.
The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]

Hi, Jamie! Very good list. I needed something like this for 2018 so that I know what to target in the future blogs I create. As for now, I’m comfortable using SiteGround affiliate network and it’s pretty good actually. Their hosting service is pretty much the best considered its price. I’ve tried others but SiteGround stands out. I’ll also try new affiliate networks, something from the list you have just provided. I think Amazon is too saturated at the moment, and I need a better network. 2018 will be interesting indeed.
Given that I am still in reading and preparation phase, I am mainly interested to overlap my niche with real life interests so I could have motivation to produce content on regular basis. Two that I am highly interested are PC parts and Fitness. I am aware they are too general subjects with lot of sites doing the same, but my idea is to produce constant review on PC parts, Laptops, Mobile devices, Accessories all in different categories, create lists like top5 or 10 under XX budget etc. Similar approach I would use if I I decide to go with Fitness path and divide content training advice, review of fat loss methods, supplementation, nutrition etc. I am aware that this will be a long journey and that it can pass few months before sales start to kick in and that’s the risk I am ready to take. My questions are:
This is a great review! Probably one of the longest one’s I’ve seen so far 🙂 Wealthy Affiliate is truly one of the best platforms that can help you earn money online. I’ve tried out many other programs as well, and failed to make any kind of money with all of them. Some other’s are legit as well, but nothing matches the training, tools and the whole community that we have here on WA!
Think about the typical ‘9 to 5’ job. Employers help take the routine out of their employees lives with perks. Sometimes it’s free lunches and other times it’s a nice bonus check. For a lot of affiliates, their work is their ‘9 to 5’. And, while they’re their own boss, they are still being asked to do work for others. Just like the CEO that wants to make sure their employees feel appreciated and want to work for them, it’s a good idea to do the same for your partners.
Hey Eli, I appreciate that. I completely agree with what you’re saying. I can’t think of anything more important than the WHY. The HOW is available to everyone… Wealthy Affiliate can provide that, but what they can’t do is provide us with is the WHY. That’s what gets us up early (or keeps you up late at night if that’s your preferred time to write). It’s what forces you to push through, or pivot when you’re up against something you can’t figure out or you’ve just hit a wall. I wish you all the best on your online journey and hope you find the success you’re looking for. If there’s anything I can be of help with, don’t hesitate to ask.
However, if you're going to understand online marketing, you have to understand the importance of building Google's trust. There are three core components involved here. These three core components are like the pillars of trust that comprise all of Google's 200+ ranking factor rules. Each of those rules can be categorized and cataloged into one of these three pillars of trust. If you want to rank on the first page or in the first spot, you need to focus on all three, and not just one or two out of three.
Although there is no exact answer to this question I can tell you this: The amount of money you can earn is directly related to what you do and how you do it. The folks who are highly successful have one thing in common – they followed the training to the dot and they took massive action. Learning how to do something is great but you need to apply this knowledge in order to actually start earning.
There are numerous ways that advertisers can be overcharged for their advertising. For example, click fraud occurs when a publisher or third parties click (manually or through automated means) on a CPC ad with no legitimate buying intent.[80] For example, click fraud can occur when a competitor clicks on ads to deplete its rival's advertising budget, or when publishers attempt to manufacture revenue.[80]
Also for a very limited time, if you join for at least a month I will be doing FREE one-on-one 30 minute coaching call for the first 10 people that sign up. I am very busy with my other projects, so I can't take do this for long. But if you sign up after 7 days, you will get a link where you can book your one-on-one session. I usually charge $99 per session, but you can get this for free when you sign up this month.
Many people come to my blog searching for “free affiliate tracking software”. There are a number of free (and inexpensive) scripts that merchants can install on their server to start an affiliate program. Here’s just a brief list: Affiliate Program Script Cosmic AffiliateClick SimpleAffiliate TigerTom’s Affiliate Program Software TWSC Affiliate Lite Additionally, some shopping carts Read More …

So if someone like Brian Dean did a blog post on Backlinko that breaks down, “How I Increased My Search Traffic by 110% in 14 Days,” I’m going to read that. Why? Because you can tell just by the headline that it’s an actionable post, you can learn something from it, take all that knowledge, implement it on your website, and hopefully, you’ll see similar results.

Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.
Products are now put in a category. The commission will be based on the category each product has been placed in whether or not the category is correct. For instance, I had a sale for a child riding toy tractor. Instead of it being in toys category which would have only earned me 3%, it was actually placed in lawn and garden category which I then actually earned 8% instead.
Unlike mass marketing, which effectively piques the interest of the local audience by means of radio spots, newspapers and print media, internet marketing allows companies to nurture a more personal relationship with their consumers from all over the world. With internet marketing, businesses can deliver content to their customers through personalized and cost-effective communication. 
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